The history of sphygmomanometers

- Apr 24, 2018 -

In 1628, William Harvey (UK scientist) noticed that when the artery was cut, the blood spewed out as if it were pressure-driven. By touching the beat of the pulse, you will feel blood pressure.

In 1733, a priest named Hayes measured the blood pressure of animals for the first time. He inserted a small 270 cm-long glass tube with a small metal tube at the end into the carotid artery of a horse. The blood immediately entered the glass tube and was as high as 270 cm. This indicated that the blood pressure in the horse carotid artery could be maintained at 270 cm. The blood column is high and the height is slightly raised or lowered due to the heartbeat of the horse, the blood pressure is increased (systolic pressure) when the heart contracts, and the blood pressure is decreased (diastolic pressure) when the heart is relaxed.


In 1835, Julius Erson invented a sphygmomanometer, which transmitted pulse beats to a narrow column of mercury. When the pulse pulsates, the mercury will jump up and down accordingly. For the first time, the doctor can measure the pulse and blood pressure without cutting the artery. However, due to its inconvenience, rough fabrication, and inaccurate readings, other scientists have improved it.


The sphygmomanometer measures the blood pressure according to the height of the mercury column, and the barometer measures the air pressure in the same way.


In 1860, Etienne-Julle Mare (French scientist) developed the best sphygmomanometer at the time. It amplifies the beat of the pulse and records the pulsating trajectory on the web. This sphygmomanometer can also be carried around. Marley used this sphygmomanometer to study the abnormal beat of the heart.


The blood pressure meter used by doctors today was invented in 1896 by Hippelone Riva Roche (Italian scientist). It has an inflatable cuff to block blood flow. The doctor listens to the beat of the pulse with a stethoscope and reads the number of blood pressure on the scale.


(Note: The earliest sphygmomanometers were used to measure blood pressure in horses. After the changes of the times, sphygmomanometers have become more and more advanced. Many people have them in their families in order to understand their own health.


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